JPMorgan Chase Software Engineer Interview Questions + Guide in 2024

JPMorgan Chase Software Engineer Interview Questions + Guide in 2024JPMorgan Chase Software Engineer Interview Questions + Guide in 2024


JPMorgan Chase is a multinational investment bank and financial services holding company headquartered in New York City. It’s the largest bank in the United States by assets, holding assets of $3.7 trillion (as of 2023). It currently operates in over 100 countries, offering banking services to a global clientele. Their user-friendly online and mobile banking platforms put financial services at your fingertips, anytime, anywhere.

If you’re a talented software engineer who thrives in a fast-paced, innovative environment, and you’re passionate about making a real impact on the world, then a software engineering role at JPMorgan Chase might be your dream job.

In this guide, we’ll walk you through the JPMorgan Chase Software Engineer interview process, types of questions you might encounter and offer practical tips to showcase your potential and help you land your dream role.

What is the Interview Process like for a Software Engineer Role at JPMorgan?

The interview process for a Software Engineer role at JPMorgan typically involves multiple stages designed to assess your technical skills, problem-solving abilities, and cultural fit. Here’s a breakdown of what to expect:

Application and Resume Review

Submit your application through the company’s website or employee referrals. If you are a student, you can also apply through your university. The hiring team reviews your resume to assess your qualifications and experiences.

Initial Screening

A recruiter or hiring manager will contact you if your application stands out and may conduct an initial screening interview to discuss your background, skills, and motivation for applying. Expect questions about your programming experience, familiarity with data structures and algorithms, and understanding of software development principles.

Code For Good

In this round, you will work on coding challenges and software development projects. You may collaborate with a team or work individually to devise innovative solutions. The assessment goes beyond coding proficiency and evaluates problem-solving skills, creativity, and algorithmic thinking.

System Design And Whiteboard Challenge

This round will involve system design exercises or coding challenges to evaluate your ability to design scalable and efficient solutions. You will be asked to collaboratively design and explain the architecture of a system for a given scenario, demonstrating your understanding of scalability, security, and efficiency.

Behavioral Round

Next up, you will have behavioral interviews to assess how well you’d fit into the team and the company culture. Expect questions about your past experiences, teamwork, and how you handle challenges. The interviewer will assess your work ethic, communication style, teamwork abilities, and alignment with JPMorgan Chase’s values.

On-Site Interview

This stage typically involves a series of back-to-back interviews with various team members. You can expect a mix of technical challenges, coding exercises, and system design questions. Technical challenges may involve live coding sessions, debugging exercises, or algorithmic puzzles that test your coding proficiency and logical thinking. You’ll be interviewed during lunch or coffee in a less formal setting, discussing the team’s work, the company culture, and potential projects you would be involved in.

What Questions are Commonly Asked in a JPMorgan Software Engineer Interview?

The JPMorgan Software Engineer interview encompasses a wide range of topics, including programming languages (Java, Python, C++), data structures and algorithms, system design, databases (SQL and NoSQL), software development principles (Agile, version control, CI/CD), and object-oriented programming.

Here are some questions that you may encounter during your interview:

1. What is your approach to clarifying a confusing requirement?

In the fast-paced and dynamic financial services environment, clarity in project specifications is important for developing robust and efficient software solutions. This question evaluates your problem-solving and communication skills and your approach to ambiguity in project requirements.

How to Answer

When answering this question, emphasize your proactive approach to understanding and resolving ambiguities. Highlight your communication skills, your strategy for asking targeted questions, and how you collaborate with stakeholders to ensure clarity.


“When faced with a confusing requirement, my first step is to gather as much context as possible by reviewing the available documentation and previous communications. If the requirement is still unclear, I prepare specific, open-ended questions that aim to clarify the ambiguity. I then schedule a meeting or send an email to the project stakeholders, including project managers, business analysts, and, if applicable, the clients themselves.”

2. Discuss an instance where you had to work with a non-cooperative colleague.

At JPMorgan Chase, effective teamwork is essential for successful project outcomes. The question aims to understand how you handle conflicts or uncooperative team members.

How to Answer

Focus on maintaining a positive tone and emphasize the constructive actions you took to address the situation. Discuss your ability to adapt to different working styles, communicate effectively, and find common ground to ensure the project’s success.


“In a previous project, I encountered a situation where a team member was consistently uncooperative, making collaboration challenging. To address this, I initiated a one-on-one meeting to understand their concerns and perspectives. It became clear that there were underlying issues related to workload and personal stress. Instead of escalating the situation, I empathized with their challenges and suggested ways to redistribute tasks more evenly among the team. I also recommended adopting a more transparent communication approach to prevent future misunderstandings.”

3. How would you explain the core values of the company?

Understanding JPMorgan’s core values gives insights into how a Software Engineer will fit within the company’s culture. The interviewer might want to check how much you know about the core values of the company and, being a Software Engineer, how you approach problem-solving and develop financial solutions that are efficient and trustworthy.

How to Answer

Before the interview, thoroughly research JPMorgan’s core values. Familiarize yourself with the company’s mission statement and any publicly available information about its values and principles.


“In my view, JPMorgan Chase & Co. upholds core values centered on integrity, excellence, and respect for individuals. The company emphasizes the importance of doing business ethically, striving for the highest standards in work, and fostering a culture of respect and inclusion. These principles guide its decisions and actions, ensuring a trustworthy and high-performing environment.”

4. Tell me about a time when you exceeded expectations during a project.

They’re looking for individuals who are driven, proactive, and willing to take ownership. The interviewer wants to see how you handle challenges, exceed requirements, and contribute meaningfully to projects.

How to Answer

Use the STAR method to structure your response: Situation, Task, Action, Result. Briefly describe the project context, your specific role, the challenges you faced, and the actions you took.


“During my previous role, I was tasked with developing a new feature for their product. The initial scope was basic, but I saw an opportunity to enhance the functionality significantly. I researched similar features in competitor products, identified potential user needs, and proposed an expanded design. I proactively learned a new framework to implement my ideas and collaborated with the team to ensure smooth integration. As a result, the feature was not only delivered on time but also exceeded user expectations, leading to a 25% increase in user engagement.”

5. How do you handle challenges or obstacles in your work?

JPMorgan values employees who can demonstrate perseverance, strategic thinking, and the ability to learn from setbacks. It gives insight into how you approach difficulties and whether you can remain productive and positive when faced with challenges.

How to Answer

Briefly describe how you deal with challenges and obstacles and your strategy when faced with unexpected challenges.


“When faced with challenges, I approach them with a positive mindset and a structured problem-solving strategy. I believe in breaking down complex problems into manageable tasks, prioritizing them based on impact, and collaborating with team members to leverage diverse perspectives. Clear communication and maintaining transparency with stakeholders are crucial during challenging situations. I am adaptable, open to learning new approaches, and remain focused on finding effective solutions.”

6. You ask 3 friends in Seattle if it’s raining; they each tell the truth 23 of the time and lie 13 of the time. All 3 say yes, it’s raining. What’s the probability it actually is?

This question, involving probability, tests your analytical thinking and problem-solving skills. In financial software development at JPMorgan you will often encounter scenarios where you will have incomplete data or information. This question tests how you approach uncertainties and make decisions with partial data.

How to Answer

Use Bayes’ theorem to calculate the probability of it actually raining using the provided information. Clearly explain each step of your calculation, showing a structured and logical approach.



P(Y|R) = 23 (friend says “Yes” when it rains)

P(Y|not R) = 13 (friend says “Yes” when it doesn’t rain)

All 3 friends say “Yes” (Y^3)


P(R|Y^3) (probability of rain given all “Yes” answers)


P(R|Y^3) = (P(Y^3|R) * P®) / P(Y^3)

P(Y^3|R) = (23)^3 = 827

P(Y^3) = P® * (23)^3 + (1-P®) * (13)^3 (sum of probabilities)

Substitute and solve for P®:

P® = (827 * P®) / (P® * (23)^3 + (1-P®) * (13)^3)

Multiply both sides by denominator and solve:

1 + 7 = 8P® => P® = 89

7. Describe different caching strategies and their applications in a distributed system.

Efficient caching is important for handling large datasets, minimizing latency, and improving overall application responsiveness. This question can be asked to assess your understanding of optimizing system performance.

How to Answer

To answer, first provide an overview of caching strategies like write-through, write-around, and write-behind, explaining their respective applications and trade-offs. Then, emphasize the importance of choosing a strategy based on the specific needs of the system.


Caching strategies play a crucial role in optimizing performance and managing data in distributed systems. One prevalent approach is the Write-Through Cache, where data is simultaneously written to both the cache and the database to maintain consistency. This ensures real-time updates but may introduce a slight delay in write operations. Another strategy is the Write-Behind Cache, which buffers write operations in the cache and asynchronously updates the database. This reduces write latency, benefiting systems with a high write load. Additionally, the Least Recently Used (LRU) strategy removes the least recently accessed items from the cache, optimizing space utilization. Each caching strategy serves distinct purposes, catering to specific performance and efficiency requirements in distributed environments.

8. Write a function called find_bigrams that takes a sentence or paragraph of strings and returns a list of all its bigrams in order.

At JPMorgan, you will be developing and maintaining software systems. This question tests your proficiency in coding and problem-solving, which is needed for optimizing algorithms in financial software data processing and analysis.

How to Answer

To answer this question, demonstrate knowledge of string manipulation and iteration through the words of a sentence or paragraph. You need to understand the concept of bigrams, which involves identifying pairs of consecutive words in a sequence.


def find_bigrams(sentence):
words = sentence.split()
bigrams = [(words[i], words[i + 1]) for i in range(len(words) - 1)]
return bigrams
text = "Machine learning algorithms provide valuable insights."
result = find_bigrams(text)

The find_bigrams function takes a sentence, splits it into words, and creates a list of consecutive word pairs, representing the bigrams.

9. Explain the principles of secure coding practices and how they can prevent common security threats.

Secure coding is essential in preventing vulnerabilities and ensuring the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of software systems. This question helps interviewers evaluate your understanding of security concepts.

How to Answer

In your response, demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of key secure coding principles. Emphasize the importance of adopting a security mindset throughout the software development lifecycle.


“Secure coding practices play a pivotal role in building resilient software systems. Input validation, for example, is crucial to prevent injection attacks, ensuring that user inputs are sanitized and free from malicious code. Proper error handling helps minimize information leakage, making it more challenging for attackers to exploit vulnerabilities. Secure authentication mechanisms, such as multi-factor authentication, enhance user identity verification and protect against unauthorized access. Encryption of sensitive data, both in transit and at rest, safeguards information from eavesdropping and unauthorized disclosure. The principle of least privilege dictates that each component in the system should have only the minimum access required, reducing the potential impact of a security breach.”

10. Given a transactions table with date timestamps, sample every 4th row ordered by the date.

Being able to efficiently sample data from a database is important for tasks like data analysis, reporting, and even for creating efficient data-driven applications.

How to Answer

To answer this question, you would use a SQL query that involves window functions, which assigns a unique sequential integer to rows within a partition of a result set. First, order the data by the date to ensure that the sampling is based on the chronological order of transactions. Then, use a function to assign row numbers and filter the result to get every 4th row.


ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY date_column) AS rn
FROM transactions
) sampled_data
WHERE rn % 4 = 0;

In this query, we use the ROW_NUMBER() window function to assign each row a unique sequential number based on the order of the date column. The outer query then filters these rows, selecting only those where the row number is a multiple of 4.

11. How would you approach debugging a complex software issue in a production environment?

As JPMorgan is committed to maintaining secure software systems for operating financial services smoothly. Software issues can have significant consequences. Hence this question can be asked to test to test your ability to handle real-world challenges and debugging.

How to Answer

When answering this question, highlight a methodical approach to debugging that minimizes disruption in the production environment. Mention the importance of replicating the issue in a non-production environment.


“When debugging in a production environment, my approach is systematic. I collect detailed information about the issue, replicate it in a safe environment, and use monitoring tools to pinpoint the problem. Clear communication is maintained with the team and stakeholders. In a past scenario, I identified a memory leak by analyzing heap dumps, traced it to a third-party library update, and resolved it by rolling back the update in production.”

12. Write a query to calculate monthly sales for each product, presenting products in separate columns.

This question tests your proficiency with SQL and your ability to manipulate and present data in a format that’s useful for business intelligence and decision-making.

How to Answer

Mention the use of GROUP BY for aggregation and CASE statements or a PIVOT clause (if supported by the SQL dialect) to separate product sales into columns.


Given a table of monthly sales data, I would start by aggregating sales for each product and month using the GROUP BY clause. To present each product in its own column, I’d use CASE statements within an aggregate function like SUM, pivoting the data based on product names.

SUM(CASE WHEN Product = 'Product A' THEN Sales ELSE 0 END) AS 'Product A Sales',
SUM(CASE WHEN Product = 'Product B' THEN Sales ELSE 0 END) AS 'Product B Sales',
SUM(CASE WHEN Product = 'Product C' THEN Sales ELSE 0 END) AS 'Product C Sales'

13. Describe an efficient algorithm to find the top k frequent elements in a large dataset.

It evaluates the ability to design an efficient algorithm to process large datasets, a skill crucial for tasks like data analysis, recommendation systems, and more. It assesses your familiarity with algorithms, data structures, and optimization techniques.

How to Answer

Seek clarification on whether you’re dealing with elements, frequency counts, or specific data types. Confirm the desired output format. Utilize data structures like hash tables or priority queues to efficiently track and retrieve frequencies.


“In approaching the task of finding the top k frequent elements, I would consider using a hash table to track the frequency of each element efficiently. I would create a hash table to store the frequency of each element in the dataset. Then I’ll iterate through the dataset, updating the frequency count in the hash table. I will use a min-heap or a priority queue to maintain the top k frequent elements efficiently. For each element encountered, I’d check if it has a higher frequency than the smallest element in the heap. If so, I will replace the smallest element with the current element and adjust the heap accordingly.”

14. Given a bank_transactions table, find how many users made at least one transaction each day in the first five days of January 2020.

Data management is important for Software Engineers at JPMorgan. In the interview, you might be asked this question to demonstrate your proficiency in SQL, database querying, and your ability to work with financial data.

How to Answer

Use SQL’s DATE functions to filter transactions within the first five days of January 2020. Group transactions by user and date to count daily transactions. Apply a having clause to ensure only users with transactions on each of the five days are counted.


I would write a SQL query that first filters transactions within the specified date range. Then, I’d group the results by user and date to ensure we count transactions for each day separately. Finally, I’d count only those users who have transactions on all five days.

SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT user_id) AS active_users
  SELECT user_id
  FROM bank_transactions
  WHERE transaction_date BETWEEN '2020-01-01' AND '2020-01-05'
  GROUP BY user_id, DATE(transaction_date)
  HAVING COUNT(DISTINCT DATE(transaction_date)) = 5
) AS daily_transactions;

15. Describe your experience with unit testing and how you would test different components of a financial software system.

It aims to evaluate your knowledge of software testing practices, their ability to ensure code reliability, and their familiarity with testing financial systems, which often involve complex logic and regulatory compliance.

How to Answer

Discuss your experience with unit testing, emphasizing your role in ensuring the correctness of code through comprehensive test coverage. Mention any specific tools or frameworks you’ve used for unit testing.


“In my experience, unit testing is crucial, especially for financial software, to ensure accuracy and compliance. I’ve used frameworks like JUnit for Java and PyTest for Python, focusing on critical components such as calculation algorithms and data integrity. I prioritize edge cases and regulatory requirements to ensure robustness. Automation plays a big role in my strategy, utilizing continuous integration tools to maintain high code quality and quickly identify issues.”

16. Given a list of tuples featuring names and grades on a test, write a function normalize_grades to normalize the values of the grades to a linear scale between 0 and 1.

It evaluates the ability to apply mathematical concepts to solve real-world problems, especially when dealing with datasets that require normalization for further analysis or for meeting certain standards.

How to Answer

To answer this question, you’ll need to demonstrate knowledge of basic statistics and the ability to write efficient code. Start by calculating the minimum and maximum grades in the list to use as your scale’s endpoints. Then, apply the formula for normalization and iterate over each tuple.


def normalize_grades(grades):
    # Find min and max grades for the normalization formula
    min_grade = min(grades, key=lambda x: x[1])[1]
    max_grade = max(grades, key=lambda x: x[1])[1]

    # Normalize each grade to a 0-1 scale
    normalized_grades = [(name, (grade - min_grade) / (max_grade - min_grade)) for name, grade in grades]

    return normalized_grades

# Example usage
grades = [("John", 82), ("Jane", 74), ("Dave", 91)]
normalized = normalize_grades(grades)

17. Explain the concepts of RESTful APIs and their importance in financial services applications.

JPMorgan relies heavily on efficient and scalable software systems to manage various aspects of financial services. Understanding RESTful APIs is important for designing, developing, and maintaining these systems. This question can be asked to test your understanding of RESTful APIs.

How to Answer

When answering, focus on defining RESTful APIs and their principles (such as statelessness, cacheability, and a uniform interface). Then, discuss their importance in financial services.


“RESTful APIs are guidelines for building scalable web services, using standard HTTP methods to create, read, update, and delete resources. In financial services, they’re crucial for integrating diverse systems—like banking platforms with payment processors—enabling secure, real-time data exchange. This integration supports the development of fintech applications that aggregate data from various sources, providing comprehensive services. RESTful APIs ensure secure data transmission, scalability to handle increased loads, and flexibility for innovation. For example, banks use RESTful APIs to give third-party apps access to transaction data, enabling personalized financial management tools that improve customer service and encourage a broader ecosystem of financial products.”

18. Use Python to count lines in a 100 GB file by reading chunks or lines iteratively to avoid memory overflow.

Processing a massive file without loading it entirely into memory is a common challenge, especially in scenarios with limited resources. This question tests your ability to handle large-scale data efficiently.

How to Answer

You should propose a solution that reads the file in chunks or iteratively processes lines, preventing memory overflow. This showcases the understanding of efficient file handling and memory management in Python.


def count_lines(file_path):
    chunk_size = 1024 * 1024  # 1 MB
    total_lines = 0

    with open(file_path, 'r') as file:
        while True:
            chunk =
            if not chunk:
            total_lines += chunk.count('\n')

    return total_lines

19. Discuss the usage of templating engines like Jinja2 in Python web development and their role in rendering dynamic content.

Templating engines, such as Jinja2, play a crucial role in rendering dynamic content on web pages, making them integral to web application development. It tests your understanding of web development in Python.

How to Answer

In your answer, showcase knowledge of how templating engines work, emphasizing their role in separating logic from presentation. Discussing specific use cases, advantages, and the integration process.


“Jinja2 is a templating engine used in Python web development to dynamically render HTML pages. It integrates Python variables and logic into HTML, allowing for dynamic content display based on user data or interactions. This separation of presentation and business logic enhances maintainability and readability. For example, in a Flask application, Jinja2 can populate a user profile page with data fetched from a database, enabling real-time content generation and a more interactive user experience.”

20. Write a Python function, max_profit, to find the maximum profit from at most two buy/sell transactions in a list of stock prices.

Software Engineers at JPMorgan deal with large financial datasets and they need to optimize solutions under specific constraints. This questions tests your proficiency in algorithmic thinking and your grasp of programming concepts, including loops, conditionals, and possibly recursion.

How to Answer

Iterate through the stock prices while maintaining variables for the first and second buy prices, and first and second profits. Update the variables based on potential buy/sell opportunities. Return the maximum profit achievable with at most two transactions.


def max_profit(prices):
    first_buy = float('inf')
    second_buy = float('inf')
    first_profit = 0
    second_profit = 0

    for price in prices:
        first_buy = min(first_buy, price)
        first_profit = max(first_profit, price - first_buy)
        second_buy = min(second_buy, price - first_profit)
        second_profit = max(second_profit, price - second_buy)

    return second_profit

Tips When Preparing for a Software Engineer Interview at JPMorgan

Preparing for a Software Engineer interview at JPMorgan requires a comprehensive approach. Here are some tips to help you prepare:

Master Technical Fundamentals

Brush up on core computer science concepts, algorithms, and data structures. Practice coding problems in languages commonly used in the industry, such as Java, Python, or C++. Research commonly used technologies at JPMorgan Chase and tailor your knowledge accordingly (e.g., cloud platforms, specific frameworks).

Explore Interview Query’s vast collection of interview questions specifically designed to test core technical fundamentals. These questions cover essential topics in algorithms, data structures, and system design.

System Design Preparation

Practice designing scalable and efficient systems. Understand trade-offs in different design choices. Be able to discuss the architecture of systems you’ve worked on in the past.

Check out Interview Query’s take-homes feature for hands-on practice with system design questions. This will help you sharpen your skills in architecting scalable solutions, preparing you for system design interviews effectively.

Coding Challenges

Practice coding challenges and focus not only on solving problems but also on understanding the underlying principles. Consistent practice will not only sharpen your coding skills but also boost your confidence when tackling similar challenges during the actual interview.

Utilize Interview Query’s Challenges feature for focused coding practice. These challenges cover a spectrum of topics, helping you refine your coding skills in preparation for your interview.

Tailor Your Resume and Cover Letter

Make a targeted resume and cover letter for your application. Highlight relevant skills, experiences, and projects that align with the position’s requirements. Tailoring your application materials demonstrates a strong fit for the role and increases your chances of standing out among applicants.

Interview Query offers Coaching services where you can get personalized advice from experts that can guide you in crafting standout resumes and cover letters.

Mock Interviews

Practicing mock interviews helps refine your communication skills, enhance your problem-solving abilities, and identify areas for improvement.

Use Interview Query’s Mock Interview feature to gain valuable insights into your performance. The more you practice, the more confident and well-prepared you’ll be when facing the actual interview.


What is the average salary for a Software Engineer role at JPMorgan?


Average Base Salary


Average Total Compensation

Min: $72K
Max: $175K
Base Salary
Median: $115K
Mean (Average): $119K
Data points: 925
Min: $4K
Max: $240K
Total Compensation
Median: $104K
Mean (Average): $119K
Data points: 647

View the full Software Engineer at Jpmorgan Chase & Co. salary guide

The average base salary for a Software Engineer at JPMorgan Chase & Co. is $118,689. The average recency weighted total compensation is $117,190.

If you want to know more about average salaries for Software Engineer role in general, consider checking our Software Engineer Salary page.

What are some other companies that I can apply to as a Software Engineer apart from JPMorgan?

Apart from JPMorgan, you can apply to SoFi, Roblox, Square, Tesla and many other companies as a Software Engineer. There are a lot of opportunities in the industry.

Additionally, if you want to know more about other companies and their Software Engineer roles, you can explore our Company Interview Guides where you can learn more about other companies and their software engineer interview processes.

Does Interview Query have job postings for the JPMorgan Software Engineer Role?

Yes currently we do have listings for open positions for the Software Engineer role at JPMorgan. Consider checking out our Jobs Board for more details and to apply please go to JPMorgan’s official Careers website.


In conclusion, by focusing on the insights and resources provided above, you’ll be well-prepared for your upcoming Software Engineer interview at JPMorgan.

Explore our comprehensive JPMorgan Interview Questions on Interview Query. Don’t miss the chance to discover insights into other roles we’ve covered, including Data Analyst, Data Engineer, and ML Engineer positions.

Best of luck on your journey towards landing your dream job at JPMorgan Chase.